How Women Can Develop — and Promote — Their Personal Brand


We all know developing a personal brand is valuable, since a strong reputation can put you on the radar for exciting career opportunities. When your true talents are understood, it’s far more likely you’ll be tapped for relevant and interesting assignments — and it helps you stand out in a field of competitors. Research by Sylvia Ann Hewlett at the Center for Talent Innovation shows that cultivating your personal brand is one of the best ways to attract a sponsor — and professionals with sponsors are 23% more likely than their peers to be promoted. Your brand is also a powerful hedge against professional misfortune. If there are layoffs or cutbacks at your company, being recognized in your field makes it far more likely that you’ll be snapped up quickly by another firm.

But personal branding has some unique challenges for female professionals. Research has repeatedly shown that women are subject to a phenomenon known as the “likability conundrum.” Gender norms presume that women should be agreeable, warm, and nurturing, and when they violate these norms — such as when they step up to make a tough decision, share a strong opinion, or promote themselves — they’re often penalized for that behavior in a way that men wouldn’t be. We can all think of examples of women who have been publicly criticized for being “too aggressive” or labeled an “ice queen” or the “b-word.”

So how can you, as a woman, navigate this conundrum and develop a robust personal brand? Here are three strategies that can help ensure your talents are recognized.

Network both inside and outside your organization. Too many professionals over-index on “bonding capital,” to use a term popularized by Harvard sociologist Robert Putnam, and underinvest in “bridging capital.” In other words, they have too many connections who are like them (working in the same company or the same industry) and not nearly enough who are dissimilar.

When only a select group knows about your talents and abilities, you put yourself in jeopardy. You have fewer people who can speak to your contributions or provide support, whether that’s help in securing additional resources for an important project or moving up to a new role. And if your department is reorganized or your company has layoffs, the people who understand your talents won’t be in a position to help.

Instead, consciously cultivate a broad network, so if your situation changes or you need backup, you have options. For instance, you could make a point of building professional connections with people you meet through hobbies, relationships of proximity (for instance, neighbors or parents at your kids’ school), or friends of friends.

Control your narrative. We often assume that if we work hard, people will notice it over time, or that if we’ve made a transition, it will make intuitive sense to others. Because people are so overstretched these days, that’s unfortunately almost never true. They’re simply not paying close enough attention to us or our professional trajectory to formulate a coherent narrative of us. Worse, they may make inaccurate assumptions — say, that your skills must be wildly out of date since you took time off after having a child, or that you shifted to functional roles because you were bored or “couldn’t hack it” — which could cause you to miss out on growth opportunities.

Help others understand the truth about your journey by developing a clear and concise elevator pitch that explains how your previous skills connect with, and add value to, what you’re doing now. Make that connection explicit, rather than hoping others will figure it out on their own.

To start, chart it out on paper. On one side, write down your past position or experience. On the other side, write down the job you currently hold. Then find the connective tissue that links them.

For instance, your past might be “HR director” and your present might be “regional sales leader.” An outsider may have no idea what connects these two positions and assume your career path is somewhat random. But you know that your experience in HR taught you about how to listen empathetically, understand what motivates people, and develop win-win solutions — all of which are perfect ingredients for sales success. When you’re able to share this with others, they’ll almost always get it and recognize the unique skills you bring to your position and the organization.

A crisp elevator pitch isn’t useful just for times when you’re job hunting. There are often opportunities to shape the way you’re perceived by others, but most people miss them. For instance, new acquaintances will often ask how long you’ve been at your job or how you came to your current field. Having a pithy answer ready means you can turn their question into an opportunity to subtly highlight your skills: “I started out in HR and worked my way up to director. But I became fascinated by the sales process, and realized the listening skills and ability to connect with people that I’d developed in HR would enable me to add real value to the company, so I transitioned last year and am now the head of northeast sales.” You haven’t just laid out your job titles; you’ve provided context that conveys a strong personal brand.

Similarly, during performance reviews, you can make a point of reminding your boss about how you’re leveraging key strengths you’ve developed over time. For instance, you could connect this year’s increase in client upsells to your work developing your team’s listening skills so that they’re more attuned to client needs.


Share your ideas publicly. If you keep a low profile and let your work speak for itself, you may indeed develop a good reputation among the people you work closely with. But that’s a relatively limited number of people. Individuals in other departments or leaders many levels above you may not be aware of your contributions. And any staffing changes might disrupt the hard-fought reputational capital you’ve built. Your new boss or colleagues, lacking personal experience with you, may have no idea whether you’re any good.

Many women may feel uncomfortable talking about their accomplishments and promoting themselves directly. But there are other ways to show your areas of expertise when building a brand. Content creation is a good way to share your ideas and build a positive reputation at scale. The precise mechanics will differ based on company policies (your ability to use social media may be limited in certain regulated industries, for instance), but in almost any organization, there are ways that you can you demonstrate your knowledge and help others.

For instance, you could volunteer to host a lunch-and-learn about a topic you’ve been researching, start writing for the company newsletter, or offer advice or respond to queries on the corporate intranet. Many professionals ignore these opportunities, assuming they’re distractions that take them away from their “real work” or scoffing that no one really pays attention to them. Even if these opportunities are not popular among your colleagues, higher-ups are almost always paying attention, since they view these channels as important vehicles for transferring knowledge and sharing best practices. One college friend of mine, for example, while working as a sales clerk at a large retailer, got into a private message exchange with the company CEO — eventually winning a trip to headquarters — as the result of one of her posts on the corporate intranet.

Content creation may also open up completely unexpected opportunities, including new jobs. Miranda Aisling Hynes, whom I profile in my book Stand Out, self-published a book about creativity that she gave to a friend who worked at an arts organization. He liked it and passed it along to his supervisor; when Hynes later applied for a job at the organization, she was a shoo-in because the book had already established her credibility in the field.

Personal branding is fraught for many professionals — no one wants to look like a craven self-promoter. And with the likability conundrum, building meaningful connections and a strong reputation at work is even more complicated for women.

But if we don’t control our own narrative and show the world what we can contribute, odds are very few people will actually notice. By following these strategies, you dramatically increase the odds that your true talents will get known, recognized, and appreciated.

Dorie Clark is a marketing strategist and professional speaker who teaches at Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business. She is the author of Entrepreneurial YouReinventing You, and Stand Out. You can receive her free Entrepreneurial You self-assessment


How to Get People to Collaborate When You Don’t Control Their Salary

Most of us assume that if we want to change people’s behavior, we need to change their incentives.

For example, after I published research and advice on collaboration in professional service firms, I heard from a surprising number of people who wrote to ask questions like, “Maybe it’ll work in a partnership, like a law or consulting firm, but what about in my company, where employees aren’t owners and can’t change the rules?” People in industries as different as commercial real estate, pharma, biotech startups, hedge funds, and public school districts worried about how to transform a competitive, star-driven culture into a collaborative one when they had no power to juggle financial rewards and no influence over promotion decisions.

To pursue this issue, I picked a new research setting where the reward system is highly constrained — and so is the career ladder. By investigating how a leader can boost cross-silo collaboration without changing either the compensation or the promotion system, maybe we could find lessons that translate to companies where people also face limits on their ability to change organizational structures.

Tackling Collaboration in a Constrained Setting

The Boston-based Dana-Farber Cancer Institute is one of the world’s leading institutions for adult and pediatric patients. Collaboration is as necessary as it is tricky in this setting. Just as with business knowledge, scientific knowledge is changing so rapidly that Dana-Farber’s doctor-researchers must evolve quickly from generalists to specialists who focus on a highly specialized niche within cancer detection and treatment. Yet tackling cancer requires a multidisciplinary effort, ranging from disease biology to population monitoring. Research efforts can’t focus on applying the findings of deep, narrow studies; they must add up to a much broader, more integrated program.

The difficult angle for the Dana-Farber — the challenge shared by many companies — is that collaboration doesn’t come naturally to many of the highest performers and the system seems almost geared against teamwork. The organizational stars have tremendous autonomy over key work decisions. And just like software engineers who hold code in their head or a law firm partner who controls critical client relationships, the Dana-Farber scientists hold a credible threat of walking out the door with their IP and grant-winning prowess. The parallels with business are clear: Stars are a crucial but perhaps fragile source of innovation and competitive advantage.

Here was the paradox for leaders: While fostering smart collaboration, they had to maintain Dana-Farber’s entrepreneurial approach to research. And they faced big constraints. Because the researchers in question were members of the Harvard faculty, the Dana-Farber leaders couldn’t influence promotion criteria, nor could they reward people differentially through compensation.

So how do you jumpstart collaboration without transforming the pay or promotion system? The problem is that collaboration requires an investment. My analyses show that “smart collaboration” — that is, collaboration targeted at the right opportunities — nearly always pays out, but only after people spend time developing the underlying relationships and processes. Many people and companies start the investment, but quit before seeing the returns. Only if you stick with the effort through a long enough time frame can you expect the returns to become positive. This is how collaboration gets embedded as a normal way of working. But how to get through the pain barrier? 

Jumpstarting collaboration 

To foster collaboration, your initial hurdle is to capture people’s attention and give them the confidence to take some risks in order to make the initial investment. Costs naturally drop as people gain experience collaborating and develop the trusted relationships that smooth the process, but you should take steps to lower those costs more quickly. Likewise, your actions can make the benefits start to flow sooner. Both these efforts help the payback period arrive sooner, making collaboration a smarter investment for the next wave of people. Here are steps to keep in mind:

Pick your battles carefully. Make sure you’re focusing efforts to foster collaboration where it’s most needed: tackling complex problems that require the inputs of multiple specialized experts who couldn’t confront the issue without integrating their knowledge. If you’re operating in a highly individualistic culture, select a “coalition of the willing,” people who are favorably inclined to collaborate and won’t gripe to colleagues about a few hiccups while you build momentum.

Convince with quantitative evidence. Harness your internal sales data to show people that smart collaboration is not just a nice-to-have — it’s a strategic advantage for capturing market share. The bars in the chart below, for example, show how much your sales force increases revenue per client when people work across boundaries to sell multiple services. But the circles, which indicate how few clients are actually served by the full range, show how much upside potential still exists.

Drive down collaboration costs. Broker important relationships to help people build the necessary networks quickly. Use simple, off-the-shelf tools to make collaboration smoother. For example, make sure Skype and Dropbox or similar programs work with your IT system so that teammates can easily communicate and share documents. Pair a technology whiz with any employee who needs support with the tools; a personal relationship makes the uptake much likelier than expecting someone to learn on their own or to rely on the IT hotline. For major collaboration projects, Dana-Farber assigned coleaders who shouldered the administrative burdens while the superstar researcher provided the thought leadership. Take the heat of other short-term goals so that time spent collaborating feels like less of an opportunity cost.

Harness the power of competition. Publicize advances that people make collaboratively to stir up some constructive rivalry among peers. Set up contests and award small prizes for steps people take in the right direction, such as submitting joint sales plans rather than individual ones. Some companies now use gamification technology to engage employees in collaborative actions ranging from meeting new colleagues to completing team-based business goals.

Get the benefits flowing faster. Since the financial payout for collaboration can take a while, be sure to reward inputs while people are in the early stages of learning new collaborative processes. Dana-Farber evaluated scientists’ efforts at including experts from other disciplines as well as contributing to other researchers’ projects — and then recognized them again much later when those efforts turned into publications or successful grants. Make it easy for people to call out colleagues who helped them, and celebrate both the contributor and communicator. Let people directly reward each other. For example, have a stockpile of small gift cards that employees can access to thank each other for their collaborative efforts.

 Dana-Farber ultimately succeeded in building 10 integrative research centers that bring together the world’s leading researchers to battle cancer in multidisciplinary ways that would be nearly impossible if each specialist was confined to their traditional silo. (You can read my deeper analysis of Dana-Farber here.) Business leaders, too, can harness the power of collaboration by taking some of these steps to sustain momentum until the rewards of collaboration consistently outweigh the costs.

Heidi K. Gardner is a distinguished fellow at the Center on the Legal Profession and faculty chair of the Accelerated Leadership Program at Harvard Law School. This article draws on research in her book Smart Collaboration: How Professionals and Their Firms Succeed by Breaking Down Silos (Harvard Business Review Press, 2017).